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Fun Facts: State Gems, Minerals and Fossils


Gems, Minerals, Fossils and Rocks have a long and storied history in every state in America. As you look into the history behind each state's choice of mineral or gem or fossil you will find that many cities and towns and entire industries have built up around these valuable discoveries. Some finds have been fully recovered and many still thrive today. Enjoy browsing this listing of state stones and be sure to delve deeper into the history behind each of them.


STATE ROCK MINERAL GEMSTONE FOSSIL Notes of Interest
Alabama Marble Hematite Star Blue Quartz Whale - Basilosaurus cetoides Fossil remains of the Basilosaurus cetoides may not be removed from the state without prior written approval of the governor.
Alaska   Gold  Jade Wooly Mammoth Alaska has large deposits of the jade, including an entire mountain of jade on the Seward Peninsula.
Arizona       Turquoise Petrified wood Turquoise can be found throughout the Southwest and is composed of hydrous oxide of aluminum and copper.
Arkansas Bauxite White Quartz Diamond     Arkansas is the only diamond-producing state in the United States. John M Huddleston found the first diamonds near Murfreesboro in 1906.
California Serpentine Gold Benitoite Saber Toothed Cat Sometimes called the " blue diamond", benitoite was first discovered near the headwaters of the San Benito River.
Colorado Yule marble  Rhodochrosite Aquamarine Stegosaurus The world's largest Rhodochrosite crystal, called the Alma King, was found in the Sweet Home Mine near Alma (Park County), Colorado
Connecticut   Garnet     Eubrontes giganteus Connecticut is one of the finest sources in the world of the almandine garnet.
Delaware   Sillimanite     Belemnite The belemnite was, in essence, a squid with a conical shell.
Florida Agatized Coral     Moonstone Agatized Coral Ironically, the moonstone, a form of the mineral feldspar, is not found naturally in Florida. It was named the state gem to honor the space program.
Georgia   Staurolite Quartz Shark tooth Staurolite is abundant in north Georgia, the distinctively twinned, crystals are collected as good luck charms and also known as fairy stones.
Hawaii       Black Coral        
Idaho       Star garnet Equus simplicidens The star garnet from Emerald Creek, Idaho, is the best garnet outside of India to exhibit the star phenomenon.
Illinois   Fluorite     Tullimonstrum gregarium Illinois is the largest producer of Fluorite in the United States. Fluorite is used in making steel, enamels, aluminum, glass, and many chemicals
Indiana Salem Limestone                
Iowa Geode             Geodes are found in limestone formations and have a hard outer shell. When carefully broken open, a sparkling lining of mineral crystals, most often quartz and calcite, is revealed.
Kansas                  
Kentucky Kentucky Agate Coal Freshwater pearl Brachiopod    
Louisiana   Agate     Petrified Palmwood    
Maine   Tourmaline     Pertica quadrifaria Pertica quadrifaria (a plant fossil) was first discovered in Maine. Well-preserved remains of Pertica are found at only three other places in the world besides Maine. 
Maryland       Patuxent River Stone Ecphora gardnerae & Astrodon johnstoni The Patuxent River Stone is actually an agate, a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. Found only in Maryland, the Patuxent River Stone's colors of red and yellow reflect the Maryland State Flag
Massachuetts Roxbury Pudding Stone & Granite Babingtonite Rhodonite Dinosaur foot track MA is one of the few locations in the world where Babingtonite, usually jet black material with a brilliant submetallic luste,r is found.
Michigan       Chlorastrolite (Greenstone) Petoskey Stone (fossilized coral) Chlorastrolite ranges in color from yellow-green to almost black and when polished shows a turtleback pattern.
Minnesota       Lake Superior agate     Despite their name, Lake Superior agates can be found throughout much of Minnesota
Mississippi Petrified wood         Fossil whale    
Missouri Mozarkite (chert) Galena     Crinoid
Delocrinus missouriensis
The crinoid (Delocrinus missouriensis) is a mineralization of an animal which, because of its plant-like appearance, was called the "sea lily."
Montana       Sapphire & Montana Agate Duck-billed Dinosaur (Maiasaura peeblesorum) Yogo mines have produced an estimated forty million dollars in blue sapphires.
Nebraska Prairie Agate     Blue Chalcedony Mammoth One mammoth found in Lincoln County, Archidiskodon imperator maibeni, was one of the world's largest elephant fossils.
Nevada Sandstone Silver (metal) Black Fire Opal & Turquoise Ichthyosaur Northern Nevada’s Virgin
Valley is the only place in North America where black fire opal is found in any significant quantity.
New Hampshire Granite Beryl Smoky Quartz            
New Jersey             Hadrosaurus foulkii    
New Mexico       Turquoise Rioarribasaurus    
New York           Garnet Sea Scorpian
Eurypterus remipes
Sea scorpions are extinct carnivorous marine arthropods. These fierce hunters had a scorpion-like stinger which may have contained poison, 3 pairs of jointed legs, 2 clawed arms, and strong jaws.
North Carolina Granite     Emerald       A greater variety of minerals, more than 300, have been found in North Carolina than in any other state.
North Dakota           Teredo petrified wood  
Ohio         Flint Isotelus (trilobite)    
Oklahoma Barite "rose"     Hourglass Selenite Crystal Saurophaganax maximus (Theropod dinosaur)    
Oregon "Thunder egg"   Sunstone Metasequoia Oregon is also the only place in the world that this gem grade material is found with copper in it.
Pennsylvania           Phacops rana    
Rhode Island Cumberlandite Bowenite (antigorite)            
South Carolina Blue granite     Amethyst     The curator of mineralogy for the Smithsonian Institute has graded one of the largest early specimens of Amethyst from this SC as the finest seen in this country.
South Dakota   Rose Quartz Fairburn Agate         Triceratops    
Tennessee Limestone     Tennesseee Pearl  Pterotrigonia thoracica Tennessee River pearls are of all colors and they are “natural” as the mussel made them – all pearl, all the way through. They have been found in various shapes – spherical, pear-shaped and baroque, or irregular.
Texas            Petrified Palm Wood   Blue Topaz Pleurocoelus Texas also has a state gemstone cut: The Lone Star cut.
Utah Coal Copper Topaz Allosaurus      
Vermont Marble, Slate, Granite Talc Grossular Garnet Delphinapterus leucas Grossular garnet from the Belvidere Mine at Eden Mills is thought to be the finest specimen of its kind anywhere.
Virginia           Chesapecten jeffersonius    
Washington       Petrified Wood        Mammoth Columbian Mammoth (Mammuthus columbi)    
West Virginia       Chalcedony Coral        
Wisconsin Red Granite Galena     Trilobite (Calymene celebra)    
Wyoming       Nephrite Jade knightia ( herring) & Triceratops    


information from: Collector's Corner http://www.minsocam.org/msa/collectors_corner/offmin.htm - various official State websites. http://www.netstate.com